Diabetes, the name of which we have heard frequently lately, is among the health problems caused by unhealthy diet and sedentary life. Diabetes is caused by insulin. Insufficient production of insulin hormone or development of resistance to existing insulin causes diabetes. If you wish, After this information, let’s move on to information about what is diabetes, its causes, symptoms and treatment.
What is Diabetes?
In people with diabetes, the level of glucose, ie sugar, in the blood rises above the normal level. Glucose is the simple sugar that comes out when grinding protein, fat, and carbohydrates. Glucose is a very important nutrient source for all organs in the body. Thanks to the hormone insulin, cells can take the glucose they need into the cell, use it as fuel or store it as glycogen. If insulin is not secreted by the pancreatic gland, glucose rises in the blood. It is also detected in the urine, which should not normally be seen. Diabetes is a disease with different types. There is little or no insulin production in type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, there is a resistance to insulin and the existing insulin cannot be used. Blood sugar rises in both cases.
Pre-diabetes, on the other hand, is not the type to diagnose diabetes, even if diabetes symptoms are close. Diabetes mellitus is diverse, depending on genetic factors, pregnancy (gestational) and a number of other causes.
What are the Causes of Diabetes?
Among the causes of diabetes, there are many environmental and genetic causes. Although the causes vary according to the type of diabetes, they are generally similar. type 1 diabetes differs from other types in this regard, mostly due to genetic factors. In addition, the inability to secrete the hormone insulin as a result of damage to the pancreas is the cause of type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by obesity, family history of diabetes, sedentary life, stress, pregnancy, advancing age and other conditions.
The clearest symptoms and devastating consequences of diabetes are seen in patients with type 1 diabetes. The fact that these patients are dealing with diabetes from an early age ensures that the development period of the disease is skipped. Naturally, it is not possible to talk about the early symptoms of the disease. When the distribution of diabetic patients among diabetes types is examined, it will be seen that most patients have Type 2 diabetes. Naturally, the symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients, which cover ninety percent of all patients, are also considered as symptoms of diabetes. In the process leading up to diabetes, first insulin resistance develops and then early diabetes develops. Symptoms differ in insulin resistance stage, early diabetes and late diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes can be listed as follows:
- The excretory system is the seat belt of the circulatory system. Any excess that occurs in the circulatory system is eliminated by the excretory system. With the sugar level in the blood being much higher than normal, the kidneys start to work more than they should. The aim is to transfer excess sugar that mixes with the blood into the urine, and to expel it from the urinary tract. Diabetes In other words, the first symptom of diabetes is frequent urination, which is disproportionate to fluid intake. As a by-product of this effect, the body’s water requirement is constantly increasing. Despite drinking water, the feeling of thirst that cannot be quenched is also a clear sign of diabetes, as is frequent urination.
- In diabetics, the person’s body weight may become unbalanced. It is a normal process especially in patients with mid-term diabetes. The person is constantly losing calories, constantly hungry, constantly consuming food, and constantly unstable blood sugar levels. As a result of this vicious circle, İt is possible to encounter sudden weight loss or sudden weight gain. A constant feeling of hunger can also be mentioned in diabetes.
- Feeling tired despite just waking up from sleep, constant weakness and fatigue, and persistent nausea, although it is not an extreme situation, are among the main symptoms of diabetes.
- The greatest damage to diabetes is the ability to see. With diabetes, damage to the capillaries in the eyes, blurring of vision can be encountered. In addition, since the body constantly excretes water with urine in diabetics, the fluid in the eye lenses may be withdrawn. Diabetes can cause blurred vision as a result of dry eyes.
- Another condition encountered in type 1 diabetes patients and advanced type 2 diabetes patients is the burning of fat cells. Because sugar in the blood cannot be used, cells begin to burn fat tissues in order to continue life. Burned fat tissues make the blood acidic. As the blood becomes acidic, the symptoms of advanced diabetes may develop instantaneously.
- In diabetes, the immune system comes under pressure as the tissue damage reaches the middle-upper levels. As a result, the frequency of infectious diseases may increase.
- In diabetes, wounds that heal late or do not heal at all may occur in areas that can be seen with the naked eye.
- Diabetes puts a serious pressure on the kidneys and at the same time the urinary tract is under pressure. In the case of diabetes, which is not intervened for a long time, the development of infection in the urinary tract can be seen.
- In female diabetic patients, menstrual irregularity may occur due to blood sugar irregularity.
These are the symptoms of diabetes in general. Because it takes a long time for the symptoms to appear and become noticeable in type 2 diabetes patients, many more may be added to the listed symptoms, and many may not be seen at all.
Diabetes can develop in some people for decades, or it can cause serious problems within a few years. It is very difficult to detect the early stages of diabetes in terms of symptoms and problems. The excess sugar circulating in the blood destroys the capillaries. As a result of this destruction, all kinds of diseases can occur. Health problems caused by diabetes are:
- Vision is largely dependent on nerve cells in the eye. Capillaries feed these cells. Since diabetes destroys the capillaries, there may be loss of vision.
- In diabetes, the kidneys use some special cells while cleaning the blood. Capillaries feed these cells. Depending on the damage in this area, kidney diseases may occur.
- Nervous diseases are possible in patients with advanced diabetes. It is possible to encounter sudden developing diseases, especially depending on peripheral nerves.
- Sudden hardening of the heart vessels and the resulting cardiovascular diseases are seen in diabetes.
- In diabetes, sudden hardening of the vessels feeding the brain and sudden loss of consciousness occur as a result.
- Blockages in the feet and toes, which are the farthest point of the body from the heart. Tissue loss due to occlusions is among the symptoms of diabetes.
• As a result of hardening of the arteries due to diabetes, other metabolism problems may occur. High blood pressure, cholesterol, stress can be given as examples of these problems. In addition, arteriosclerosis is one of the factors that support excess weight.
Diabetes treatment varies according to the type of diabetes. While diet and insulin therapy are applied in type 1 diabetes, surgical treatment can be performed in addition to classical treatment in type 2 diabetes. For the treatment of diabetes, type 1 diabetes patients should be subject to a special nutrition program with the support of a dietitian. The insulin dose to be taken by the patient is determined by the doctor and is taken regularly. The daily nutrition routine is planned by regulating the carbohydrate value and insulin dose of the foods. Type 2 diabetes patients, in addition to following a special diet plan for the treatment of diabetes, use some drugs. These drugs are antidiabetic supplements to increase the release of insulin that is present but not used in the body and to increase sensitivity to insulin.
If type 2 diabetes cannot be kept under control despite diet and drug treatment and causes damage to the body, it can be treated with surgical intervention if necessary, taking into account the health status of the patient. In type 2 diabetes surgery performed laparoscopically, that is, closed, insulin secretion from the pancreas is increased with the intervention and the released insulin is of higher quality. At the same time, insulin sensitivity in tissues increases. In addition, the person’s interest in foods with carbohydrates decreases. For all these reasons, the sugar metabolism in the patient returns to normal.